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25-11-2011, 12:17

History of Rogun and water and energy relations in Central Asia

Recently, questions have become pressing water and energy relations in Central Asia, in particular the various opposing views on the completion of the Rogun, as well as the influence of the latter on the water and energy situation in the Aral Sea.


In this paper, in abbreviated form the history and analysis of this issue, since the results of the vast amount of material within a single article to provide an incredibly difficult, and, nevertheless, it is through the efforts of the author's done. It is also important to note that the views and opinions expressed in this article do not reflect the position or view of the official structures of Tajikistan, or IFAS.


The question of Rogun, as a matter of the construction site after the Nurek hydroelectric station, was raised in the scheme of the integrated use of the Vakhsh River, composed Sredazgidro project in 1959 and approved after revisions and refinements resolution № 47 NTS GPKE IE USSR from 20.06.63, and then the Decree of the State Expert Commission (SEC), Gosplan USSR № 21 of 25.12.65 was one of the main tasks was to identify opportunities to create large hydroelectric reservoirs with intensive, which in addition to obtaining cheap power could provide water for future growth of irrigated land.


In the study of schemes of complex use of the Amu Darya as such waterworks were named two: Tyuyamuyun (completed in 1987) and the Upper Amu Darya, the emerging initially in those years in the territory, the border with Afghanistan.


The best solution was the maximum allocation of regulatory capacities on the Vakhsh River - the second part of the Amu Darya River runoff, all located in the former Soviet Union, where the complex irrigation and hydroelectric power have been put forward Nurek (commissioned in 1979) and Rogun.


In this case, the total usable capacity in heavily regulated the amount of 18-19 km3, almost full advantage of their own water resources and ensuring the development of irrigation in the basin of the Amu Darya was obtained by Tyuyamuyun (5.3 km3), Nurek (4.5 km3) and Rogun (8 , 6 km 3) reservoirs. This decision by the General Scheme of water resources in the Amu Darya finalized form was approved by the SEC Gosplan decree № 18 of 24.12.69, the Decree This, together with the technical requirements of the Ministry of Energy and Electrification (MEiE) USSR 11.06.66g. served as a basis to begin the design and survey works for Rogun.


In December, 1969. At the stage of feasibility study Sredazgidro project were released, "Proceedings of the choice of alignment and type of dam." Examination of these materials at the Institute of Energy Hydroproject and the Soviet Union in 1970 established the technical feasibility and economic viability of Rogun integrated irrigation and energy purposes, and recommended for further elaborations only one Lower Rogun stvorny station and dam from local materials. A full feasibility study was completed in 1972 feasibility study object was examined at the Institute "Hydroproject" USSR Ministry of Energy and approved by the SEC Gosplan decree number 6 on 2/27/74, the


Examination of feasibility study confirmed the findings of the project to validate the technical reliability and efficiency of Rogun hydropower, possible to establish the basic parameters of hydroelectric reservoirs, to clarify the place of Rogun hydroelectric development in the Central Asian Economic region, including irrigated agriculture in the Lower Rogun site with the type of stone and earthen dam.


Drafting of the technical project was started in 1974 and completed in November 1978 In November and December 1978 draft was reviewed by the expertise of the Institute "Hydroproject" (Minutes № 72 Technical Council on 26/12/78), as at the end of 1979review was completed in the NTS USSR Ministry of Energy (Minutes № 70 of 27.06.79g.).In October 1980 the project was agreed head of expertize USSR State Construction Committee and the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of Science and Technology (SCST of the USSR) (opinion by letter of the USSR State Construction Committee of 16.10.80g. № 380) and approved by the Council of Ministers (Decree № 2411-r from 27.11.1980g.).


Sredazgidro project in 1982 on orders Tajik energy adjustment was made of materials of technical project start-up complex of the first two units. The main provisions of the corrected starting complex were reviewed and approved by order of the Ministry of Energy of the USSR № 163 from 22.04.84, the (note number 1079-T1, 1982-1983)..


In 1985-1986. Sredazgidro project on the instructions of the USSR Ministry of Energy carried out an additional study to clarify certain sections of the project (note number 1079-T4 JP, 1985-86.). In carrying out the project design study examined twice and was pre confirmed in USSR Ministry of Energy for confirmation that the technical level of practical solutions to comply with the requirements of science and technology and that Rogun should be continued. The protocols were signed reapproval First Deputy Energy Minister of the USSR, respectively, № 248 of 27.12.85g. and number 66 from 01.12.86g.Completed materials design study in 1987 were discussed and agreed upon the expertise of the Institute "Hydroproject".

In 1989 Sredazgidro project were performed studies on the preliminary assessment of the technical and economic indicators Rogun with a decrease in the useful volume of the reservoir by an amount required for irrigation, with a corresponding reduction in the mark NPU 30 and 50 m (note number 1079-T23 JP, 2nd edition , 1989)..


In 1990, the project has passed a special examination by an independent SEC Gosplan in the study of the reliability of hydroelectric plants under construction based on the approved plan, taking into account all previously performed additional elaborations.


It should be noted that the conduct of this examination was justified by the release of the Resolution of the CC CPSU and USSR Council of Ministers № 1110 from 19.08.1988 "On measures on radical improvement of environmental and sanitary conditions in the Aral Sea ...", where it was decided to reduce the work on development of new arrays of irrigated land-based resources of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. This fact is immediately triggered the need to refine the parameters and purpose of Rogun reservoir, which occupies a definite place in the distribution of water resources Amudarya basin.


It should be added that, since 1987 the public had been deployed in Tajikistan a broad discussion of issues Rogun in relation to local conditions. Mostly, it concerned a sharp negative attitudes towards the resettlement of the flood zone of the reservoir, with motivation  this circumstance - violations of the national religious and ritual traditions (Transfer of burial, flooding of sacred sites), the limited space tracts of land suitable for development in the mountains, and quantitative the quality of the damages from the flooding of farmland and villages, as well as issues of social, environmental, demographic and ethnic origin.


Questions were also raised concerning the reliability of ultra-high dam and a hydroelectric power station of the underground complex. At the same time to address Sredazgidro project was sent a formal assignment, approved by the USSR Ministry of Energy and the Council of Ministers of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (23.11.89g respectively. And 27.12.89g.) To work on assessing the technical and economic indicators Rogun with a decrease in NEC by 50 m, estimated by the implementation of improvements in the amount of the project, taking into account all the above issues relating to hydroelectric installations, environment and water reservoir.


In the same period a number of organizations Academy of Sciences of the USSR with the filing and with the support of the public of Tajikistan appealed to the USSR State Planning Committee with a proposal for the immediate suspension of Rogun on an existing project and need to analyze the possibility of reducing the height of the dam at 50-70-100 m or more, the organization of an additional examination of the project in terms of its seismic studies, the reliability of the dam being built taking into account environmental and social issues arising in connection with the construction of waterworks. This was supported by the SCST of the USSR, the USSR State Committee and the USSR State.


The decision of the examination was taken a letter of Gosplan number PP-5799 from 10.02.1990, the examination has confirmed the validity of the fundamental provisions of the approved engineering design (decision of the expert sub-committees and expert groups HES Gosplan, respectively, from 05.07. 04/10/1990 and d). The decision of the examination of reliability built structures Rogun was written that, despite the extremely difficult geotechnical and seismotectonic conditions of construction, engineering, contraindications for the construction of hydroelectric facilities projected in the selected alignment is not available.


The conclusions and the recommendations of an independent examination of HES Gosplan in 1990 formed the basis for the continuation of virtually stopped further elaborations of the project, initiated in accordance with the above requirements of the customer on 11/23/1989, and 27/12/1989, the


The results of design study allowed:


-To clarify the basic provisions of the approved project Rogun marked NEC 1290 meters, taking into account all design, construction and natural-price changes over the period following the approval of the project (1980-1992.)

-Confirm parameters, high efficiency and value of hydropower in the solution of water, energy, social and environmental issues in the current conditions of the Central Asian economic region;


-Qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess hydroelectric capacity of the reservoir decreases and the decrease in NEC in a guidance value of 50 m (NEC 1240m.), Also on other values - 30, 105 and 170 m.


Completed study of identified possibility of greatly improving the technical and economic performance and social significance of Rogun hydropower compared to the previously approved project.


It was stressed that hydro, still retains its comprehensive meaning, and can operate as a pure energy mode, without disrupting existing at present water situation in the Amu Darya River basin, and in the mode with the priority area of irrigation, providing additional water supply to $ 5 km3 for the development of irrigated agriculture on the lands of the Amudarya basin, located on the territory of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.


The main conclusions of the work design and survey institute of "Tashgidroproekt" the document "Additional study of specifying materials Assessment Project, technical and economic indicators Rogun with decreasing capacity of the reservoir," Tashkent-1993 as follows:

-Confirmed settings, efficiency and value of hydropower in energy, water and socio-economic problems of Central Asian region,


-Confirmed fairly high degree of reliability of the main hydropower plants, based in the project.


Hydro-still retains its complex value and can operate as a pure power mode without disrupting existing at present water situation in the basin of the Amu Darya and the Aral Sea, and in the mode with the priority irrigation area.


-Water storage in conjunction with the Nurek reservoir on the Vakhsh River and the Amu Darya River Tyuyamuyun, total usable capacity of 18-19 km 3, is capable of providing long-term regulation of the River Amu with an additional guarantee in the amount of fluid loss 5,0-5,9 km 3 on land Amu Darya basin located in the Republic of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.


Turning to the work-Rogun reservoir enables further development of the water in the Amudarya basin in two main areas:


A) the continuation of the development of irrigated agriculture, and in this case, the effective capacity of the reservoir will be used to cover the irrigation water use. At the same time the project is provided by the newly irrigated lands increase of 360 hectares and increase water availability in existing irrigation systems in the basin of the Amu Darya River on the areas to 4.3 million hectares;


B) The further development of irrigated agriculture stops everywhere (option "stop"), to deny, as from the introduction of new irrigated land and on water availability, improve existing ones. Additional water loss from long-term flow regulation Rogun reservoir in this case can be used to solve the problems of the Aral Sea and the Aral Sea water flooding.

It should be noted that in the development and numerous examinations Rogun participated dozens of design and research, academic institutions and experts with a worldwide reputation and recognition.


In summary it should be noted that the basic idea of long-term management, the results of numerous examinations have become a fundamental requirement of the Integrated circuit with full-year regulation of the Amu Darya basin water yield guaranteed more than 61, 5, km3 (? = 0,92) with a total capacity of regulating the amount of 18-19 km3 by Tyuyamuyun (5.3 km3), Nurek (4.5 km3) and Rogun (8.6 km3) of water reservoirs.


A comprehensive scheme to date is the sole governing document defining the general conditions of water management in the Amudarya basin, governs: the distribution of water resources between countries, an effective scheme of regulation of the flow, setting limits withdrawals from surface waters, the requirements on the use of returnable and groundwater, and restrictions on discharge of saline and polluted water sources.



The entire block of international water law countries of Central Asia (the Agreement "On Cooperation in joint management and protection of transboundary water resources", Alma-Ata, February 18, 1992), agreement on the use of hydropower resources of the Syrdarya river basin (r . Bishkek. March 17, 1998) and others) fully established and developed on the basis of the existing Integrated circuits, without which all inter-state laws on water resources in the region is losing its essence.


Obviously, the distrust of the results in design and research and academic institutions will lead to distrust by the integrated circuits and all developed and operated for the system to control water and energy resources in the region could collapse. What follow up to the adoption of new regulations? The destruction of decades of outgoing interstate legislation on water and water-Asian energy cooperation is not beneficial to anyone and especially to countries downstream.


It is clear that a possible revision of the limits on the distribution of water among all the countries of the Aral Sea basin, the situation could change radically. Internationally recognized principles of rational and equitable use of water resources, enshrined in international conventions water, some of which are committed to the region, and having now unjustly and unreasonably huge limits on the water can be in the revision of the existing water allocation limits and get less serious problems. In addition, also need to be revised, and many other aspects related to the prevailing effective regulation of flow and overall water and energy cooperation. Ready - whether the Central Asian countries to do this?


Mavlon Kazakov

Representative of the Republic of Tajikistan on the Board of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea

(E. Mail: kazakov_mavlon@mail.ru)